Bloody urine is also known as hematuria. It is important to differentiate from red or red/brown colored urine cause by the excretion of dietary pigments in urine or blood originating from the reproductive tract in females.
- Red-tinged urine with or without extreme urinary frequency (pollakiuria)
- Blood clots expelled during urination (micturition)
The most common causes of hematuria are in the lower urinary tract:
The upper urinary tract is a rare cause of bloody urine:
- kidney stones (nephrolithiasis)
- bacterial infection
- kidney inflammation (glomerulonephritis)
Genitalia are the most common cause of hematuria in females:
Lastly, there can also be systemic causes such as a low blood platelet count (thromboctyopenia) and an impaired ability for the blood to clot (coagulopathy), especially due to anticoagulant rodenticides.
Sedentary, obese rabbits on diets consisting mainly of commercial pellets or high alfalfa hay content are at high risk for bladder sludge and stones, while middle-aged to older intact females at risk for uterine cancer or pyometra.
- House Rabbit Society, Red Urine: Blood or Plant Pigment?
- PetMD, Blood in the Urine in Rabbits
- Rebecca Saint, Causes of red urine in rabbits
- MediRabbit, Hematuria or the presence of blood in the urine
- BA Garibaldi, JG Fox, G Otto, JC Murphy, and ME Pecquet-Goad, Hematuria in rabbits.
- SmallAnimalChannel.com, Leticia Materi, PhD, DVM, What To Do When You See Red In Your Rabbit’s Urine
- PetEducation.com, Red Urine in Rabbits
- Oglesbee, B. (2011). Blackwell's five-minute veterinary consult: Small mammal. (2nd ed.).