Hay is simply a dried, preserved, fibrous plant material. The fiber content of hay that stimulates peristalsis and supports bacterial growth and gastrointestinal pH for proper digestion in hindgut fermenters like rabbits.
Why should rabbits eat hay?
Hay is the most important part of a rabbit's diet. It is the prime source of fiber to keep the GI tract of a rabbit working properly and also helps grind down teeth to prevent overgrowth. See Teeth for more information as to what sort of problems a lack of fiber in their diet can cause. Hay can also serve as entertainment as it takes a while to chew. Some bunnies like digging and rearranging their hay. Rabbits will not gain weight on an unlimited proper hay diet.
Do note that a rabbit eating only hay is not sufficient for a healthy nutritious long-term diet. Not only can too much indigestible fiber lead to an impacted cecum, but rabbits also receive very little nutrition from hay because it passes so rapidly through the gut. Vitamin content is either in very low amounts or nonexistent in hay. In addition to hay, rabbits require more easily-digested foods from which to obtain the nutrition necessary to maintain their bodies. However, it is completely safe if you need to put your rabbit on a hay-only diet for a couple of weeks or even months due to problems like an overproduction of cecotrophs.
The following links contain more information about the importance of hay in a rabbit's diet.
- San Diego House Rabbit Society, All About Hay
- House Rabbit Society, Natural Nutrition Part I: The Importance of Fiber
- Marcus Clauss, PD Dr. med. vet, MSc, Dip, ECVN, Clinical Technique: Feeding Hay to Rabbits and Rodents
- MediRabbit, Camilla Bergstrøm, Feeding the house rabbit 1: Hay and straw
Cuttings of hay
Some hays (mostly timothy) will also come with a choice of first, second, or third cuttings. In the continental US, hay is usually harvested starting in March to mid-November. The most active harvesting dates are usually June to September.
|Immature Hay||Mature Hay|
The first growth off of a field for the year is the first cutting. Generally, the first cutting should be harvested when relatively immature (pre-bloom stage), before the plant is allowed to mature to the point where the stem becomes larger and coarser.
Anecdotally, 1st and 2nd cutting timothy grass hay works well for animals with a delicate digestive system, skin problems, issues with diarrhea and weight problems.
A second cutting is the second crop taken off a field that has already been harvested once in that given year. Depending upon the temperatures of the days and nights, it typically takes 40-45 days for regrowth of alfalfa, mix hay, and orchardgrass, and 55- 60 days for regrowth of timothy.
The second cutting usually has a larger percentage of leaves to stems, has a finer and softer stem, has increased percentages of crude protein and crude fat, and has a lower crude fiber percentage depending on the maturity of the grass when it was cut.
Anecdotally, 1st and 2nd cutting timothy grass hay works well for animals with a delicate digestive system, skin problems, issues with diarrhea and weight problems.
If the growing season is long enough on any given year, it may be possible to secure a third cutting on a field. The third cutting is typically very soft hay that is primarily leaves with very few small stems. As a result, it can be much more palatable to picky rabbits who might not like the more immature and more fibrous 1st and 2nd cuttings.
For more resources on the topic, see the links below.
- Oxbow. (2023). Hay Cuttings - Fact vs. Fiction
- Small Pet Select. (2022). Everything You Need To Know About All 3 Cuts of Timothy Hay
- Linda Sterett-Fogarty. (2011). Hay in Your Bunny's Diet - Quality and Quantities for Healthy Digestion
What types of hay can rabbits eat?
There are many types of hay available on the market, however, rabbits should only be consuming either alfalfa (a legume hay) when young and grass hays when older. All grass hays, such as timothy, orchard, oat, brome and johnson grass, are suitable for mature herbivores, because they contain protein and calcium levels appropriate to adult maintenance diets. Legume hays, such as alfalfa (lucerne), clover, vetch, peanut and pea, have relatively high protein and calcium contents, which make them beneficial for growing and lactating rabbits but unsuitable for maintenance. Some legume hays also contain high levels of oxalic acid, which may lead to precipitation of calcium oxalate in the urine of some animals result in bladder sludge.
If you decide to buy by the bale, make sure the hay is horse quality, not cow quality, because horses have comparable sensitivity to rabbits while cows are more tolerant of lower-quality hay.
Here are some links for more general information and pictures on various types of hay in addition to the rest of the information already provided in this article.
- San Diego House Rabbit Society. All About Hay
- Atascadero Hay & Feed. Hay
- The Rabbit House. Grass and Hay for Rabbits
- Vancouver Rabbit Rescue & Advocacy. Types of Rabbit Hay & Grass [PDF]
What is the best type of hay for my rabbit?
While Timothy hay is the most popular type of hay marketed to adult rabbits, any type of grass hay that is rabbit-safe and your rabbit is willing to eat heaping piles of is the best type of hay for your rabbit, whether it be orchard grass, oat, rye, or other choices, as long as it doesn't cause digestive issues like excess cecals or diarrhea.
This similarly applies with type of cutting - if your rabbit is willing to eat lots of third cutting Timothy hay but not much of first cutting, we do not recommend forcing the issue if your rabbit ends up boycotting the hay completely. Overall fiber and consumption amount is most important.
Feeding a mixture of grass hays can also maintain interest and give some variety to your rabbit's diet.
How do I switch hay types for my rabbit?
Unlike higher nutrition foods like pellets and vegetables, you can freely introduce new hay to your rabbits without transitioning. Hay is mostly fiber that generally should not upset rabbit stomachs when switched suddenly. However, it is not a bad idea to mix hays in case your rabbit is a picky eater.
If you are transitioning a young rabbit from alfalfa to a grass hay, you can make a gradual transition and mix less and less alfalfa hay into the grass hay until you run out.
Alfalfa, also known as lucerne or luzerne in some countries, is a herbaceous perennial legume that originated near Iran. It has a high mineral content and contains at least 10 different vitamins. Alfalfa is high-fiber like grass hays but also contains more protein, energy and calcium. As a result, alfalfa should only be fed to growing young bunnies under the age of 7 months. For the older bunny, constant alfalfa hay consumption can lead to gummy droppings, weight gain, sludge, and cecal pellets not being eaten. Additionally, the calcium in alfalfa hay can predispose rabbits to urolithiasis when fed in large amounts.
Alfalfa is typically distinguished by their usually brittle stalks with flat green to brown leaves. Hay can vary from dark lime-green to yellow, green, or brown depending on the season. 
The following is crude analysis for various types of alfalfa hay from the 2015 Feed Composition Tables.
|Alfalfa hay, early bloom||90||19||28||1.41|
|Alfalfa hay, midbloom||89||17||30||1.40|
|Alfalfa hay, full bloom||88||16||34||1.20|
|Alfalfa hay, mature||88||13||38||1.18|
Timothy grass, a perennial bunchgrass, is a cool-season forage grass. Timothy hay is the most popular hay fed to rabbits. It looks like a dried fairly wide blade of grass, and its color is a soft green to grey or brown-green. Timothy hay also has "solid cattails" which distinguishes it from Orchard grass which has "broken cattails."
Many people who are allergic to hay have the worst symptoms with timothy hay. Consider switching to a less dusty hay if you are allergic to hay. Many rabbit owners have seen great improvement when switching to orchard grass hay.
The following is crude analysis for various types of timothy hay from the 2015 Feed Composition Tables.
|Timothy, fresh, pre-bloom||26||11||31||0.40|
|Timothy hay, early bloom||88||11||32||0.58|
|Timothy hay, full bloom||88||8||34||0.43|
The San Diego House Rabbit Society states,
If bun's diet is high in oat hay, the pellets she produces will be larger, lighter in color, and will look like sawdust if crushed. Many bunnies would benefit from eating more oat hay, an excellent preventative for GI Stasis.
The following is crude analysis for oat hay from the 2015 Feed Composition Tables.
As one can see, oat hay is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the more popular timothy, orchard grass, and meadow hay and has a very similar basic nutrition. The "oat" in the name may be misleading, and some may think it is more fattening and should be a treat, but the hay is cut before the actual oat kernel is fully mature. As a result, the seed heads consist of mostly oat husks that are rich in fiber.
Oat hay can also differ greatly in color from a pale green to a golden yellow, depending on how close to maturity the hay is harvested. The closer to maturity, the more golden the hay will be. A good-quality cereal hay is harvested when the grain is immature (soft dough stage) and the leaves and stems are still green, and therefore higher in digestible nutrients. If the cereal hay is harvested after the grain is removed, it is no longer considered hay but straw.
This hay is made from the same grass common in many lawns.
The following is crude analysis for various types of bermuda grass hay from the 2015 Feed Composition Tables.
|Bermudagrass coastal hay||89||10||30||0.47|
Orchardgrass, also known as cocksfoot or orchard grass, is native to Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia but has been grown in North America for more than 200 years. It is a cool season grass that grows in clumps or tufts and has a fibrous root system.
The following is crude analysis for various types of orchard grass hay from the 2015 Feed Composition Tables.
|Orchardgrass, fresh, early bloom||24||14||30||0.33|
Meadow hay is not a specific type of grass, but instead, it is a blend of soft grasses grown in a meadow. Sometimes other plants such as dandelions, thistles, clover, and other rabbit-safe weeds may also make it into the bale.
The following is crude analysis for various types of orchard grass hay from the 2015 Feed Composition Tables.
The following is crude analysis for various types of hay not in the above categories from the 2015 Feed Composition Tables. These are all also safe to feed your rabbit if you wish, but please be careful of the higher calcium and protein contents in the legume hays. Like alfalfa, legume hays are not appropriate to feed to adults regularly as part of their diet but is okay as a treat.
|Elephant (napier) grass hay, chopped||92||9||24||0.35|
|Fescue, KY 31, hay, early bloom||88||18||25||0.48|
|Fescue, KY 31, hay, mature||88||11||30||0.45|
|Rye grass hay||90||10||33||0.45|
|Wheatgrass, crested, hay||92||10||33||0.33|
|Birdsfoot trefoil hay||89||16||31||1.73|
|Clover, ladino, hay||90||21||22||1.35|
|Clover, red, hay||88||15||30||1.50|
|Clover, sweet, hay||91||16||30||1.27|
|Pea Vine hay||89||11||32||1.25|
Straw is the dried stalks of cereal plants like wheat and a by-product of harvest. If any seeds or grains remain on the stalks, it is by accident. Hay refers to grasses or legume plants cut down fresh and baled for animal feed. Grain hay such as oat, barley, and wheat hay may sometimes have a coloration similar to straw's when harvested closer to maturity, but the hay is cut before the seedheads are fully developed, so the nutrition is still in the stalks and not all in the seedheads. Grain hay should also have most of the seeds and grains on the stems. Hay bales are usually greener than straw bales, and the plant material finer. Straw bales are also usually half to a third of the weight of a hay bale due to the mostly hollow stalks.
Although rabbits eat it, straw is not recommended because it is low in nutrients and will lead to deficiencies if it is a major part of the diet. However, straw can be safely used as a bedding, especially for outdoor hutches during the winter.
The following is crude analysis for various types of straw from the 2012 Feed Composition Tables compiled by R.L. Preston, Ph.D.
|Fescue (Red) Straw||94||4||41||0.00|
|Pea Vine Straw||89||7||49||0.75|
Below are some links that go into greater detail about the differences between hay and straw.
- HubPages, Do Rabbits Need Straw or Hay?
What is good quality hay?
Good quality hay should be green and aromatic. It should not be overly dry, brown, damp, moldy or dusty.
Below are some links with more information about choosing good quality hay.
- Alex Rocateli, Hailin Zhang. (2017). Evaluating Hay Quality Based on Sight, Smell and Feel – Hay Judging
- Purina Mills. Six Signs of Good Quality Horse Hay
- Oxbow. (2020). The Expert Guide To Selecting Fresh Hay Your Pets Will Love
- Supreme. Hay, hay and more hay!
- Christal Pollock, DVM, DABVP. (2011). Hay: Feeding Small Herbivores
Where can I buy hay?
Pet stores will carry a variety of hay (i.e. Timothy, orchard grass, alfalfa, etc.). Typically, the amount that can be bought will range from about 24 oz up to 5 pounds. Although it is convenient to buy hay at a local pet store, this is often an expensive option. A 64oz bag will usually last a couple of weeks at ~$8. Additionally, most pet store brands offer lower quality hay that is very hard and stalky. The recommended popular hay brand is Oxbow, although this may be quite expensive since they carry a premium price compared to other commercial brands.
Some brands may offer fruit mixed in the hay -- DO NOT BUY THESE. Only buy bags of hay with only hay in them and no other treats. Dried herbs are acceptable, however. You can feed fresh healthy treats on the side, independent of the hay and easily rationed.
Through the local rabbit rescue
If you live in a location with a House Rabbit Society chapter or rescue, check and see if they sell boxes, flakes, or bales of hay at a cheap price! Of course, buying a bale yourself will be cheaper, but if you do not have the space to store it, support your local HRS chapter or rescue! They will most likely sell fresh hay at a better rate than the small bags at pet stores. Your bunny will most likely love and wallow in the fresh hay.
Some examples of House Rabbit Society chapters and rescues that sell hay include the following:
- San Diego House Rabbit Society, San Diego, CA -- $12 for 7-8lbs of hay.
- House Rabbit Society Headquarters, Richmond, CA -- $5 for a flake (garbage bag full) of hay.
- Missouri House Rabbit Society, Kansas City, MO -- $23 for 12.5lbs, $45 for 25lbs, $75 for 40lbs.
- Lowcountry House Rabbit Society,Charleston, SC -- $17 for 10lbs, $25 for 20lbs.
Online in bulk
Some bunny owners like buying their hay online in bulk. These suppliers also typically ship much fresher hay than the average commercial brand. When bought in a large enough order, costs can be around $1/lb of hay depending on supplier.
United States (US):
- Alfalfa King (Alfalfa, Timothy, Oat/Wheat/Barley)
- American Pet Diner (Alfalfa, Timothy, Mountain)
- Andy by Anderson Hay (Alfalfa, Timothy)
- Bingaling Bunnybox Store (Orchard, Oxbow)
- BunnyBytes (Timothy, Orchard, Oxbow)
- BunnyLuv (Oat, Timothy, Orchard)
- Chewy.com >> Pet Rabbit Hay
- FarmerDave (Timothy)
- Grandpa's Best (Timothy, Orchard, Prairie, Alfalfa)
- FaysPetHay (Timothy/Orchard)
- HayRabbit (Timothy, Orchard)
- High Desert Small Animal Feed (Alfalfa, Timothy, Orchard)
- One Ear Up Hay (Timothy, Meadow/Timothy/Clover, Orchard/Timothy/Clover, Alfalfa/Timothy/Orchard) - Use the coupon code 'HRS' to save 5%, and One Ear Up will also donate 5% of the purchase price to the House Rabbit Society.
- Petco >> Small Animal Hay & Grass
- Rabbit Hole Hay (Timothy, Orchard, Mountain, Alfalfa, Wheat/Barley/Oat)
- Small Pet Select (Timothy, Orchard, Oat, Alfalfa) - Use the coupon code ‘House Rabbit Hay’ to receive free shipping on any timothy hay product you purchase from Small Pet Select. Additionally Small Pet Select will donate 10% of the purchase price of your timothy hay to HRS.
- Sweet Meadow (Timothy, Meadow, Alfalfa)
- Freshay (Timothy, Orchard, Alfalfa)
- Hay Day (Orchard/Timothy blend)
- Hay for Sale Toronto (Timothy) - Toronto delivery only
- Hop Online (Oxbow, Small Pet Select)
- Napoleon Bunnyparte (Timothy)
- Park Farms (Timothy) - Ottawa/Gatineau delivery only
- Ren's Pets (Oxbow)
- Sparrow Farms (Orchard, Oat, Timothy, Meadow, Alfalfa)
- True Colours Products (Timothy, Orchard, Ryegrass blend)
- Well.ca (Oxbow)
United Kingdom (UK):
- Bunny Bistro (Timothy, Meadow, Ryegrass)
- Dee Millen Rabbit Accessories (Timothy, Rye/Timothy, Meadow/Timothy, Meadow, Ryegrass)
- DustFreeHay (Meadow, Rye, Timothy)
- Healthy Herby (Timothy, Ryegrass, Meadow, Orchard)
- Just 4 Rabbits (Timothy, Meadow)
- The Happy Hay Co. (Crau, Meadow, Oat, Orchard, Ryegrass, Timothy)
- Hay & Straw for Animals (Ings, Meadow, Timothy/Rye)
- Hay Box (Timothy, Meadow)
- The Hay Experts
- Herbivores Hay ((Timothy/Ryegrass/Meadow, Timothy, Ryegrass, Meadow)
- Hop to Forage (Timothy/Rye, Timothy/Meadow)
- Nature's Own (Meadow, Timothy)
- Nibble & Gnaw (Timothy)
- Small Pet Select (Timothy, Orchard, Alfalfa, Oat)
- Stoter Farm (Timothy)
- Timothy Hay (Timothy, Oat, Orchard)
By the bale
The cheapest option typically is a bale of hay. One bale, usually ranging from about 70 to 110 lbs depending on type, can feed one rabbit for approximately a year. Prices vary depending on location from only $5 to about $30. However, this requires space to properly store the hay as it is easily perishable when wet.
You can obtain a bale of hay at local animal feed stores, select rabbit rescues, or farms. Be sure that if you purchase from a feed store or farm, the hay is horse-quality, not cow-quality. Cows have much more tolerant stomachs while horses are comparable to rabbits.
See Hay bale for more details on how to split and store hay.
Craigslist ads and word of mouth
Sometimes, you may be able to find private owners that wish to share a purchased bale of hay to make it more manageable. You may be able to get great deals this way. Look for owners of rabbits, chinchillas, or guinea pigs as they have similar hay requirements.
How should I store my hay?
It is very important to keep hay dry and out of direct sunlight. Dampness will cause mold in the hay, and sunlight may leech out nutrients in the hay over time. The best location to store hay is in a cool indoor location out of direct sunlight.
Some good containers to store hay are cardboard boxes and plastic containers with holes drilled into the sides for air flow. Plastic garbage bags can also be used if you leave the top open for moisture to escape. Other ideas include laundry hampers and plastic totes.
If you must store hay outside, invest in a waterproof tarp along with some bricks to keep the hay off the ground to prevent mold. Otherwise, if your hay is properly dry, a watertight deck box or large plastic tote can be appropriate.
Check out Hay_bale#Storing_a_bale_of_hay for more ideas on storing a large bale of hay.
The following links contain more information and options on how to properly store hay.
- FurryButts, How to Store Hay
- Misty Hollow Farm, How to Store Hay
- Guinea Pig Compendium, Seagull's Storing Hay
- Guinea Lynx, Selecting, Purchasing and Storing Grass Hay
Special Needs Older Rabbits Sanctuary (SNORS) how to store hay tips.
Hay may be dried, but it needs to be able to breathe! Hay should be stored in a cool, dry place out of direct sunlight and in a container where it can breathe and not get mouldy. You can store your hay in a loft, garage, shed or cupboard in the house. Store it in:
🌾 A cardboard box
🌾 A cotton laundry hamper
🌾 A linen basket
🌾 A jute sack
Do not store it in plastic bags or sealed plastic containers as this will encourage mould spores.
How should I give my rabbits hay?
There are many options available to dispense hay to your rabbits. Some owners directly place a layer of hay in the litter box. Others may use hay racks to try to minimize the amount of waste soiled by pee and poop. However, please note that some rabbits will still enjoy pulling out all the hay from the hay rack before picking through and consuming the parts they like.
Commercially made hay racks can be easily found in pet stores and online. If you have extra wire grids left over from making a NIC cube condo for your rabbit, you can easily fashion a hay rack from those, too.
Be careful that your rabbit will not be able to jump in or get their head stuck in the hay dispenser.
Below are some custom made hay racks you can buy online.
The following links provide some options for non-commercial hay racks, either re-purposed household items or DIY solutions.
- Coding with Bunnies, DIY Hay Rack
- Rabbit Advocates, Barbara Ray, Creative Hay Management: Making Hay Holders and Accessories
- Bunny Approved, Rabbit Hay Racks – What are the Options?
- BinkyBunny.com, New DIY Free Standing Hay Rack!
- BinkyBunny.com, DIY hay rack?
- BinkyBunny.com, Homemade Hay Rack
- Guinea Pig Zone, Lis Vesurai, Make a Cool Coroplast Hay Rack for Three
- RabbitsOnline.net Is there a DIY hay rack?
- eHow, LissaJ, DIY Hay Rack
- Rabbitweb.net, How to Make a Hay Rack
- Special Bunny, Special Bunny's All Season Hay Feeders
- Bull Rock Barn and Home, How To Make a Rabbit Hay Feeder
- The Goat Spot, Home Made Hay Rack for about $8
Some repurposed items that could be used as hay racks are the following:
Below are image galleries of hay racks that people have made.
- Guinea Pig Cages, Hay Racks
Here are some video reviews of hay racks that rabbit owners have tried.
Encouraging your rabbit to eat hay
At the bare minimum, rabbits should be encouraged to eat at least 3 oz. of hay a day. A rabbit not eating enough hay can be prone to digestive and dental issues.
If your rabbit has suddenly stopped eating hay and other hard objects, please see a rabbit-savvy vet to consider ruling out dental issues as a cause. Radiographs may be necessary to check overgrown teeth roots if their incisors and molars look fine.
Some ideas to help increase your rabbit's hay consumption are the following:
- Introduce a variety of grass hays at an early age to increase acceptance.
- Offer hay in generous amounts, at least half a body size in volume a day.
- Offer hay in multiple locations and in a variety of containers to encourage play.
- Use hay as a bedding or lounging space.
- Rabbits tend to like to eat their hay while simultaneously use their litter box.
- Do not remove hay unless it is soiled. Replacing the hay constantly encourages the rabbit to be picky and eat only leafy parts and not the stems which contain the most fiber.
- Hide pellets and other healthy treats like herbs to encourage foraging. See Online rabbit treat stores for sources.
- Shred carrots into a pile of hay to make a "hay salad".
- Lightly mist the hay with flavored water or diluted juice. Moistened hay should be discarded at the end of the day to prevent mold growth in their litter box.
- As a last resort, steam hay to increase the moisture content, make it tender, and intensify the aroma and flavor. To steam hay, bring a pot of 1 inch of water to a boil. Place a handful of hay into a steaming basket and steam for 10-15 seconds. Fruit juice can be added to the water for flavor. Moistened hay should be discarded at the end of the day to prevent mold growth in their litter box.
Here are some links to read for more information on getting your rabbit to eat more hay.
- The Rabbit House. (2007). 5 Ways to Get Your Rabbit to Eat More Hay
- Nancy J. LaRoche. If Your Bunny Won't Eat Hay
Possible dangers of hay
Hay can be the cause of uncommon accidents.
- Inhaled. This will often cause snuffles and weepy eyes in rabbits if not removed.
- u/RevolutionaryTruth77. (2023). Rabbit had inhaled a strand of hay that owner removed. (Graphic)
- The Rabbit Doctors. (2022). Video of hay seed removal from a nostril. (Graphic)
- Wrapped around limbs. Timmy a small 2 pound Lionhead, had a piece of hay wrapped around his foot and it was not noticed because of his long fur. The hay could not be seen and Timmy tried to chew his foot off. Luckily, with a very rabbit savvy vet, he only ended up losing the very tip of his toes. Something to watch for.
- Lodged in gums. Milo had developed an abscess on his cheek that was thought to maybe be from dental problems. During surgery, they determined it was actually a piece of hay that got lodged into his gums. Milo is ok so far but has a pretty nasty scar on his cheek that we have to watch for the next two weeks. The vet told Milo's parent that "it was just a unfortunate random act that I couldn't have prevented."
- Stuck in the eyes. Rabbits can get small pieces of hay unfortunately stuck in their eyes and consequently cause serious eye injuries and ulcers, especially if they are fed with hay bags with stalky hay like timothy and alfalfa. It is important to notice if your rabbit has weepy eyes and take them to the emergency veterinary hospital if you suspect an eye injury.
- Foreign material found in hay Hay is harvested in fields, sometimes there may be foreign objects found in hay when bundled up. Ex. animal carcasses, metal, plastic or broken glass, etc. Keep an eye out for foreign objects to ensure your bunny don't ingest it.
- Ontario Rabbit Education Organization, Hay
- Kathy Smith, Hay, Hay, Hay
- Wisconsin House Rabbit Society, Susan Smith, Hay Demystified
- eHow, Emily Jacobson, Difference Between Timothy Hay & Meadow Hay for Rabbits
- Journal of Animal Science, J. A. Newlander and W. H. Riddell, Rate of Vitamin D Formation in Hay
- University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Snider, H. J., Chemical composition of hay and forage crops as affected by various soil treatments
- Exotic Animal, Application of Hay Science
- Moore, L. (2011). Rabbit Nutrition and Nutritional Healing. (1st ed.).
- Krishona Martinson, PhD, and Marcia Hathaway, PhD, University of Minnesota, What is the vitamin content of grass hay?
- Rabbit Awareness Week. (2013). The Research. Retrieved 01 May 2013 from https://web.archive.org/web/20130702072044/http://www.rabbitawarenessweek.co.uk/diet/the-research
- Ref2014. (2014). Impact case study. Retrieved 02 Jun 2017 from http://impact.ref.ac.uk/casestudies2/refservice.svc/GetCaseStudyPDF/23915.
- United States Department of Agriculture. (1997). Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for US Field Crops. Retrieved 7 March, 2016, from http://swat.tamu.edu/media/90113/crops-typicalplanting-harvestingdates-by-states.pdf
- House Rabbit Society, Linda Sterett-Fogarty, Hay in Your Bunny's Diet - Quality and Quantities for Healthy Digestion
- Atascadero Hay & Feed, Hay
- San Diego House Rabbit Society, Types of Hays and Grasses
- Meredith, A & Redrobe, S. (2001). BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. (4th ed.).
- BeefMagazine.com. (2015). 2015 Feed Composition Table. Retrieved 31 Jan 2017 from http://www.beefmagazine.com/sites/beefmagazine.com/files/uploads/2015/02/2015-BEEF-Magazine-Feed-Comp-Tables.pdf
- Oxbow. (2013). Oat Hay. Retrieved 9 March, 2016, from http://www.oxbowanimalhealth.com/products/type/detail?object=1529
- Mark Llewellyn, Hay Selection for Horses
- Root Simple, My mental glitch: hay vs. straw
- Amazonails, Hay vs. Straw: A Look at Key Differences
- The British Rabbit Council, Anna Meredith, The Importance of Diet in Rabbits
- BeefMagazine.com, R.L. Preston, Ph.D., 2012 Feed Comp
- San Diego House Rabbit Society, Hay Sales throughout San Diego County
- Yelp, House Rabbit Society
- Missouri House Rabbit Society, Products and Services
- Lowcountry House Rabbit Society, Rabbit Hay Sale
- House Rabbit Society, Shop At One Ear Up Hay, Get a Discount, and HRS Gets 5%
- House Rabbit Society, Shop for Rabbit Supplies
- Rutgers. (n.d.). Ask the Expert -- Farm and Pasture Management > How long can one store hay? Retrieved 15 Apr 2019 from https://esc.rutgers.edu/ask-the-expert/#how-long-can-one-store-hay
- Clair Thunes, PhD. (2017). Nutrition Loss in Stored Hay. Retrieved 15 Apr 2019 from https://thehorse.com/19685/nutrition-loss-in-stored-hay/
- Harriman, M. (2005). House Rabbit Handbook: How to Live with an Urban Rabbit. (4th ed.).