As a rabbit owner, there are several tasks that you may need to regularly do for your rabbit in order to keep them healthy and safe.
Rabbits love to be clean and will constantly lick themselves like cats. They can get hairballs if they ingest too much fur. Unlike cats, rabbits cannot vomit. If hairballs are allowed to form, they can become tangled masses of fur and food and will consequently block their digestion. Regular brushing along with plenty of hay helps to reduce this danger as well as keep fur from building up in your vacuum cleaning.
Typical brushing tools include a slicker brush or bristle brush. Some bunny owners have also reported good results with a FURminator, Hair Buster, flea comb, and rubber brushes and gloves like Zoom Groom, Evriholder FUR-D Duo Fur Remover, SwiPets Pet Hair Cleaning Glove, or a Love Glove Grooming Mitt. Most can be found in B&M stores such as PetSmart, Target, and Walmart. Others use more powerful tools like vacuum cleaner hoses to suck up loose fur. Be aware that rabbits may have differing opinions on each type of grooming tool. Regular short-haired rabbits should be brushed 1-2 times a week or as needed. Do not use a Furminator on Rex-type coats as they will scratch the skin. See Angora and Other Long Haired Rabbits for more information on proper grooming for long-haired bunnies.
In the case that your bunny does not like brushes at all, you may also try dampening your hands with water and wipe them over your rabbit to catch all the loose fur. Rub your hands to get the fur off, and rinse and repeat. You can also try using a damp hand towel instead, if you do not like the feeling of fur clinging to your hand.
During the severe molting season when your rabbit grows a new coat of fur, you can also just use your fingers to gently tug and pluck out his loose fur. It should come out easily without too much force and should not bother the rabbit much.
Here are some links with more information and pictures on rabbit grooming.
- Bright Eyes Sanctuary, Rabbit Grooming
Rabbits should have their nails trimmed every month or two. When a rabbit's toenails grow too long, they can catch in carpeting or cage wire. Broken bleeding toenails are prone to infection that can invade bony tissue and cause serious damage. Long toenails may also cause a serious issue called sore hocks.
Most vets, shelters, and rescue centers that deal with rabbits will offer this service for a small fee. If you would like to trim your rabbit's nails yourself, you may use small animal clippers. There are a couple of varieties available: small scissors, larger professional scissors, guillotine-style, and normal human nail clippers.
Be careful to only cut the nail and not the quick (the blood inside the nail). Remember, there are five claws on each of the front paws and four claws on each of the back paws. The quick should be easily located on a white or light-colored nail. If you do accidentally hit the quick, the rabbit's nail will start bleeding profusely. Use a little styptic powder, cornstarch, or baking flour with a moistened cotton swab or cotton ball to the area and apply moderate pressure for 5 to 10 seconds to stop the bleeding. If your bunny has black nails, shining a bright flashlight from underneath the nail will help you locate the quick.
If your rabbit is fussy about your touching its feet, see the Difficulties and Solutions section for suggestions to handle your squirmy bunny.
If your rabbit has a lot of fur around his nails making them hard to see, mist the area lightly with water and move the fur out of the way.
If all other methods to complete a nail trimming are unsuccessful and your rabbit is susceptible to trancing, trancing is another method to handle an out-of-control rabbit. Generally, we do not recommend trancing a rabbit unless necessary because most rabbits are stressed rather than relaxed in an upside-down position.
Here are some links with more information and pictures on trimming rabbit nails.
- House Rabbit Society (Singapore), Trimming Nails
- Minnesota Companion Rabbit Society, Trimming Your Rabbit's Nails
- HubPages, How To Trim Your Rabbit's Nails AND Survive The Experience
- House Rabbit Network, Calvin's Care Corner -- Nail Trimming 101
- Wisconsin House Rabbit Society, Susan Smith, Trimming Toenails
- Lianne McLeod, DVM, Nail Trims
- Happy Hoppers Rabbit Forum, Claw Clipping: How To Guide
- Bandoliers and Bunnies, Rabbit Care – Nail Trims
The following are some relevant discussions of different techniques to clip a rabbit's nails.
- reddit.com, /r/rabbits, Nail trimming tips for a fussy bun?
Below are some videos with demonstrations of the above method as well as more innovative ones.
- Howcast, How to Take Care of a Pet Rabbit
- YouTube, FastUpOnRabbitCare, DIY: Nail Clipping
- Vimeo, Ontario Rabbit Education Organisation, How To Clip a Rabbit's Nails
- Vimeo, Sarah Owings, Low Stress Way To Clip A Rabbit's Nails
- YouTube, BunnyTraining, Rabbit Trims Own Nails
Cleaning scent glands
Rabbits have scent glands around their vent and anus. Sometimes rabbits will be unable to groom the area and will cause odor and possible infections. The discharge should look like wax with a very strong odor. Use a cotton swab that has been dipped in warm water, diluted hydrogen peroxide, or mineral oil and gently swipe out any residue that might be present in the scent glands. This should be done as necessary, which is usually around once a month.
Here are some links with more information and pictures on cleaning your rabbit's scent glands.
- Bright Eyes Sanctuary, Clean Your Rabbit's Scent Glands
Below are videos of the process of cleaning scent glands on rabbit.
- Vimeo, Ontario Rabbit Education Organisation, How to: Anal Gland Cleaning
- YouTube, How to Groom Your Rabbit: Nails and Scent Glands
Rabbits should not require any baths due to their natural cleanliness and should never be entirely submersed in water unless it is an emergency. It may stress the rabbit to the point of shock or heart failure, and if not properly dried, the rabbit may get hypothermia and die. If cleaning is necessary, try using baby cornstarch powder first to spot clean their fur.
In the instance that your rabbit does get soaked to the skin, it is imperative to try to towel dry the rabbit to the best of your ability and use a hair dryer or heating pad to keep the bunny warm to finish off drying. Use a hair dryer only on the lowest heat setting and at a distance of 6 inches or more because rabbit skin is very delicate and can be easily burned.
In general, there is no reason to ever need to trim the fur on your rabbit unless it is a long-haired breed. Brushing, not trimming, will rid the bunny of any loose fur. Short and normal-furred rabbits only need their fur trimmed or shaved for a medical procedure or if there is matted fur that cannot be teased apart.
In the case that you do decide to help trim your long-haired rabbit (e.g. Angora, Jersey Wooley), there is no need to trim the fur super short. Be very careful with scissors if you use them and use blunt round-tipped ones if possible. Rabbit skin is very thin and delicate and is easily torn. Clippers are a better choice if you are worried about your manual dexterity.
Do not cut your rabbit's whiskers because they are important sensory tools that help a rabbit navigate in front of them (a blind spot).  However, in the accidental case that you do, do not worry; the whiskers will grow back.
Some good cordless trimmers (electric and manual) you may try to use are the following:
- Wahl Professional 8663 Peanut Cordless Clipper/trimmer
- Wahl 9590-210 Pro-series Complete Pet Clipper Kit - Corded or Cordless Operation, Blue
- Wahl 8787-450A MiniArco Professional Cord/Cordless Pet Trimmer Kit
- Scaredy Cut Silent Pet Clipper
See Angora and Other Long Haired Rabbits for more care tips.
It is also a good idea to check your rabbit's ears once in a while to make sure that they are not too dirty and there are no mites living in there. A dark crusty material in the ears is usually a sign of ear mite infestation.
To clean the ears out, use a damp cotton swab with a little bit of water, saline solution, or a safe ear-cleaning product such as an otic chlorhexidine solution to gently swab around the inside of your rabbit's ears. Do not use a Q-tip unless you are experienced. Be careful not to push wax further into the ear canal.
Do not stick the cotton swab too deep into your rabbit's ear canal. You may end up puncturing his ear drum. Also, only have your cotton swab slightly damp and not soaking wet. Getting your rabbit's ears too moist can lead to ear infections.
If you are unsure about how to do this procedure yourself, ask your rabbit-savvy vet to demonstrate it to you.
The following are relevant articles about cleaning your rabbit's ears.
- Diane Garrod, How to clean a rabbit's ears
Here are some relevant videos you can watch with more information.
- Ontario Rabbit Education Organisation, How To Clean a Rabbit's Ears
Difficulties and solutions
Sometimes, rabbits can be very difficult when you are trying to groom them. The following is a list of solutions if you run into any difficulties.
If you are having problems with squirming when trying to trim nails, you can try to use a bunny burrito. The basic idea is to set him on a towel and wrap it around him snugly, then hold onto him and only expose the parts you want to work with. One good video on trimming nails with a bunny burrito can be found here.
More links about the bunny burrito can be found below.
- Youtube, sirius51l, How to Make a Bunny Burrito
- MediRabbit, Safe immobilization of a rabbit in a towel (“rabbit burrito”)
For stress-free methods of training tolerance for handling and grooming, see the Behavior section of Training for more details as well at the Handling article. These ways use classical conditioning to desensitize rabbits to behaviors of which they may be anxious or fearful.
- Ontario Rabbit Education Organization, Grooming
- Reddit.com, /r/rabbits, Suggestions for brush to use while shedding?
- Reddit.com, /r/rabbits, Tips & tools for defuzzing bunnies?
- Reddit.com, /r/rabbits, Question about brushing my rabbit
- Marinell Harriman, House Rabbit Handbook: How to Live with an Urban Rabbit, 4th edition, p. 86.
- Lee Meyer, Rabbits/rabbit's whiskers, fur
- Marinell Harriman, House Rabbit Handbook: How to Live with an Urban Rabbit, 4th edition, p. 87.