Toxic plants

From WabbitWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

This is an attempt at a comprehensive list of known toxic and poisonous plants to rabbits with notes on its toxicity with regards to rabbits. A plant not on this list does not mean that it is safe for a rabbit to consume. A list of known foods safe for rabbit consumption is located in Vegetables and Treats.

If you suspect your rabbit has ingested an unsafe plant, please call your vet and/or your local poison control center, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at 1-888-426-4435 ($65 credit card charge), or Pet Poison Helpline at 800-213-6680 ($39 credit card charge). In general, if no ill effects are observed within 6h of the ingestion of a potentially poisonous plant, this is unlikely signs will develop.[1]

List of toxic plants

Botanical Name Common Names Toxic Parts Notes
Abrus precatorius Precatory bean, Precatory pea, Rosary pea, Buddhist rosary bead, Indian bead, Indian licorice, Love bean, Lucky bean, Seminole bead, Weather plant, Prayer bean, Jequirity, Crab's eye, John Crow Bead, Akar Saga, Gidee gidee, Jumbie bead seeds Contains abrin, a lectin or toxalbumin, and abric acid, a glycoside. Symptoms include severe diarrhea (sometimes bloody), tremors, high heart rate, fever, shock, death.[2] Toxins are released only if the seed is chewed and swallowed. As little as 0.00015% body weight will cause fatality in humans.[3] It appears that abrin is only very slowly absorbed by the body and, therefore, swift action after ingestion should prevent severe consequences.[4]
Achillea millefolium Yarrow, Common yarrow all parts Contains alkaloids, achillains, and glycosides but is not considered to be highly toxic. Mucous membrane contact with the plant causes irritation and inflammation. Gastrointestinal upset including diarrhea may occur.[5]
Aconitum lycoctonum Wolfsbane, Northern wolfsbane, Lamarck’s wolfsbane, Yellow wolfsbane, Yellow monkshood all parts Contains alkaloids aconite and aconitine. Ingestion of even a small amount results in severe gastrointestinal upset but it is the effect on the heart, where it causes slowing of the heart rate, which is often the cause of death. Its distinctive taste makes it unpleasant to eat so accidental poisoning is extremely rare but not unknown.[6]
Aconitum napellus Monkshood, True monkshood, Aconite, Wolfsbane, Fuzi, Monk's blood, European monkshood, Tiger's bane, Dog's bane, Soldier's helmet, Old wife's hood, October stormhatt all parts Contains alkaloids aconite and aconitine. Ingestion of even a small amount results in severe gastrointestinal upset but it is the effect on the heart, where it causes slowing of the heart rate, which is often the cause of death. Its distinctive taste makes it unpleasant to eat so accidental poisoning is extremely rare but not unknown.[7]
Aconitum spp. Wolfsbane, Monkshood, Aconite, Monkshood, Wolf's bane, Leopard's bane, Women's bane, Devil's helmet, Blue rocket, "the queen of poisons" all parts The entire Aconitum genus of the buttercup family is highly toxic. They contain aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and related alkaloids that are highly toxic cardiotoxins and neurotoxins.[8]
Actaea pachypoda,
Actaea alba
Doll's Eyes, White baneberry all parts Contains a toxic glycoside or essential oil, protoanemonin.[9] Protoanemonin is a GI irritant and diuretic.[10] Consumption causes immediate oral irritation, making ingestion to be unlikely.[11]
Actaea rubra Baneberry, Red Baneberry, Western Baneberry, Cohosh, Red Cohosh, Necklaceweed, Snakeberry, Poison de couleuvre all parts Contains a poisonous essential oil or glycoside (protoanemonin) found in all parts of the plant, but most concentrated in the berries and root. [12] Protoanemonin is a GI irritant and diuretic.[10] Consumption causes immediate oral irritation, making ingestion to be unlikely. [11]
Actaea spp. Baneberry, Bugsbane all parts See Actaea rubra and Actaea pachypoda for details.
Adonis spp. Summer pheasant's eye all parts
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse Chestnut flowers, leaves, unripe fruits
Aesculus spp. Buckeye seeds, leaves Highly toxic
Agrostemma gracilis Milias all parts
Amaranthus retroflexus Red wheat, Redwort, Wild pigweed all parts Contains oxalic acid that can cause ascites with a lemon-yellow serous fluid.[1]:50-51 Can be fed in moderate amounts but can be toxic in large amounts.[13]:109 Experiment has shown that it does not cause kidney toxicity in rabbits.[14] A confirmed toxic oral dose in rabbits is 600 g taken for 5 to 7 days.[15]
Amaranthus viridis Green amaranthus all parts Contains oxalic acid that can cause ascites with a lemon-yellow serous fluid.[1]:51 Can be fed in moderate amounts but can be toxic in large amounts.[13]:109
Aleurites fordii Tung tree all parts highly toxic
Allium sativum Garlic all parts
Allium spp. Onion all parts
Aloe barbadensis Aloe vera juice
Amaryllis spp. Amaryllis bulbs
Andromeda polifolia Bog rosemary leaves
Anemone spp. Anemone, Windflower all parts all species mildly toxic
Anemone sylvestris Snowdrop anemone all parts
Anthurium andreanum Flamingo flower all parts
Apocynaceae spp. Periwinkle all parts
Apocynum spp. Dogbanes leaves and stems Symptoms include increased temperature and pulse, dilated pupils, loss of appetite, discolored mucous membranes, cold extremities, and death.
Aquilegia spp. Columbine all parts
Arnica montana Leopard's bane roots, flowers
Arum spp. Black calla all parts
Asarum europaeum Asarabacca, European ginger
Asclepias eriocarpa California monarch milkweed, Woollypod milkweed, Indian milkweed, Kotolo all parts Contains a resinoid.[1]:50 Causes head down disease.
Atropa belladonna Belladonna, Deadly nightshdae all parts Highly toxic
Azalea spp. Rhododendron all parts highly toxic
Begonia spp. Begonia x tuberhybrida, B. semperflorens-cultorum all parts
Brassaia actinophylla Australian umbrella tree leaves
Brugmansia suaveolens Angel trumpet all parts
Brunfelsia spp. Yesterday-today-tomorrow all parts
Bryonia alba Bryony, European White all parts Highly toxic
Bryonia dioica White bryony juice
Buxus sempervirens Boxwood leaves
Caesalpinia gilliesii Bird of paradise, Peacock flower, Barbados pride, Poinciana, Pride of Barbados, Bird of paradise bush, Desert bird of paradise, Yellow bird of paradise, Barba de chivo, Brazilwood all parts Contains hydrocyanic acid that can be a GI irritant.[16] Oral ingestion of the plant can cause irritation, intense burning, excessive drooling, vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty swallowing, and incoordination.[17] Rabbit deaths have been reported.[17]
Caladium spp. Caladium all parts
Calla palustris Bog arum, Wild calla all parts
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold all parts mildly toxic
Cannabis sativa Marijuana flowers, stems highly toxic
Cassia occidentalis Coffee senna, Coffee weed, Styptic weed, Wild coffee all parts Symptoms include stomach and intestinal dysfunction, degeneration of muscle, incoordination with diarrhea, and coffee-colored urine. Affected animals are unable to stand but eat and are alert shortly before death. High blood pressure frequent. Death probably due to high blood pressure causing heart failure.[18]
Celastrus spp. Bittersweet all parts
Chelidonium majus Greater Celogine all parts
Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum leaves, stems Contains arteglasin A, which can cause contact dermatitis in humans after extended exposure.[19] No evidence of specific rabbit toxicity could be found.
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium,
Tanacetum cinerariifolium,
Chrysanthemum coccineum,
Tanacetum coccineum
Chrysanthemum, Pyrethrum flowers, leaves Contains pyrethrins that can be toxic in high concentrations.[20] Moderately toxic via oral route with a reported lethal effect in rats in does greater than 430-4000mg/kb, and slightly toxic via dermal route with lethal effects in doses greater than 2000mg/kg.

Symptoms include anorexia, lethargy, twitching, and seizures. The concentration of pyrethrins is about 0.1 % (dry weight) in leaves and 1-2 % (dry weight) in flowers.[21]

Cicuta douglasii Water hemlock all parts Toxicity retained when dry, except in hay. Rapid onset of signs, with death in 15 to 30 minutes. Symptoms include drooling, muscular twitching, dilated pupils, violent convulsions, coma, and death.[18]
Cicuta virosa Hemlock root, leaves Toxicity retained when dry, except in hay. Rapid onset of signs, with death in 15 to 30 minutes. Symptoms include drooling, muscular twitching, dilated pupils, violent convulsions, coma, and death.[18]
Clematis spp. Clematis all parts mildly toxic
Clivia miniata Kaffir lily roots
Codiaeum variegatum Croton bark, root, juice
Colchicum autumnale Autumn crocus, Meadow Saffron bulbs
Colocasia spp. Elephant's ear all parts highly toxic
Conium maculatum Poison hemlock all parts highly toxic
Convallaria majalis Lily-of-the-valley all parts Highly toxic
Cyclamen persicum Cyclamen bulb, rhizomes
Cytisus alpinus,
Laburnum alpinum
Scotch laburnum all parts Contains the alkaloids cytisine, methylcytisine, laburnine and laburnamine, which are found chiefly in the seeds (up to 3%) and leaves (0.3%). Rabbits are reportedly relatively resistant to the compound.[22]
Cytisus biflora all parts Contains the alkaloids cytisine, methylcytisine, laburnine and laburnamine, which are found chiefly in the seeds (up to 3%) and leaves (0.3%). Rabbits are reportedly relatively resistant to the compound.[22]
Cytisus purpureus,
Chamaecytisus purpureus
Purple broom all parts Contains the alkaloids cytisine, methylcytisine, laburnine and laburnamine, which are found chiefly in the seeds (up to 3%) and leaves (0.3%). Rabbits are reportedly relatively resistant to the compound.[22]
Cytisus scoparius,
Sarothamnus scoparius
Broom, English broom, Scotch broom, Common broom all parts Contains alkaloids cytisin, spartein, and scorparin in the flowers and seeds. However, the plant is reported to be extensively grazed by rabbits.[23]
Cytisus laburnum,
Laburnum anagyroides
Golden chain, Common laburnum, Golden rain tree all parts Contains the alkaloids cytisine, methylcytisine, laburnine and laburnamine, which are found chiefly in the seeds (up to 3%) and leaves (0.3%). Rabbits are reportedly relatively resistant to the compound.[22]
Cytisus weldenii Dalmation laburnum all parts Contains the alkaloids cytisine, methylcytisine, laburnine and laburnamine, which are found chiefly in the seeds (up to 3%) and leaves (0.3%). Rabbits are reportedly relatively resistant to the compound.[22]
Daphne spp. Daphne fruits, leaves Highly toxic. May cause skin irritation.
Datura stramonium Jimson Weed, Thorn-apple all parts highly toxic
Delphinium spp. Larkspur all parts highly toxic
Dianthus spp. Carnations, Clove pinks
Dicentra spp. Bleeding Heart, Staggerweed all parts
Dieffenbachia Dieffenbachia foliage, stems highly toxic
Digitalis spp. Foxglove all parts highly toxic
Endymion non-scriptus English bluebell bulb, flowers, leaves
Epipremnum aureum Pothos all parts
Erysimum cheiranthoides Wormseed wallflower
Erysimum hieracifolium Wall flower all parts
Euonymus alata Burning bush all parts
Euonymus europaeus European spindle tree all parts
Euphorbia cyparissias Cypress Spurge juice, seeds
Euphorbia helioscopia Sun spurge juice
Euphorbia lathyrus Gopher Purge, Mole plant juice
Euphorbia milii Crown of Thorns berries mildly toxic
Euphorbia pulcherrima Poinsettia all parts
Euphorbia spp. Snow on the mountain all parts mildly toxic
Euphorbia spp. Spurge all parts
Euphorbia trigona African milk tree all parts
Frangula alnus,
Rhamnus frangula
Alder buckthorn bark, unripe fruits
Galanthus nivalis Snowdrops bulbs
Genista germanica German Greenweed legumes, seeds
Genista tinctoria Dyer's Greenweed all parts highly toxic
Hedera helix English ivy, Common ivy all parts Toxic in high quantities.
Helleborus niger Christmas Rose, Black hellebore all parts
Heracleum laciniatum Giant hogweed, Tromsø palm juice
Heracleum sibiricum Cow parsnip leaves, stems
Hyacinthus spp. Hyacinth all parts Toxic in high quantities.
Hydrangea macrophylla Big Leaf Hydrangea, Hortensia all parts Highly toxic
Hyoscyamus niger Black henbane all parts Highly toxic
Ilex spp. Holly all parts
Ipomea spp. Bindweed, Morning glory all parts
Iris pseudacorus Yellow iris all parts highly toxic
Iris spp. Iris juice May cause irritation of mucus membrane.
Juglans regia Walnut green shell covering the nut
Kalanchoe spp. Kalanchoe, Air-plant, Cathedral-bells leaves Within hours of ingesting toxic does, symptoms include depression, rapid breathing, teeth grinding, lack of coordination, paralysis, and muscle spasms.[18]
Kalmia angustifolia Sheep laurel all parts highly toxic
Lantana camara Lantana all parts
Leucojum vernum Spring snowflakes all parts
Ligustrum spp. Wild Privet, Common privet berries highly toxic
Lobelia spp. Lobelia, Cardinal flower all parts highly toxic
Lonicera coerulea Sweet berry, Honeysuckle all parts
Lonicera japonica Perfoliate honeysuckle, Italian woodbine berries
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle berries
Lonicera tatarica Tatarian honeysuckle all parts
Lonicera xylosteum Fly Honeysuckle ripe berries
Lupinus spp. Lupine seeds
Lycium chinense Chinese Teaplant leaves mildly toxic
Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato leaves, stems
Maianthemum bifolium May lily all parts May cause severe gastric problems.
Melia azedarach Chinaberry tree fruits
Mercurialis perennis Dog's Mercury all parts
Mirabilis jalapa Four o'clock, Beauty-of-the-night all parts
Monstera deliciosa Window leafe all parts
Narcissus poëticus Pheasant's-eye daffodil all parts
Narcissus pseudonarcissus Daffodil all parts
Nepeta cataria,
Nepeta mussinii,
Nepeta x fassenii
Catnip all parts Can cause diarrhea if too much is eaten fresh. May act as mild sedative. Oil is a mild skin irritant.[24]

Safety Discussions

Nicandra physalodes Apple of Peru, Shoofly plant all parts mildly toxic
Nicotiana rustica Sacred Tobacco leaves
Oenanthe aquatica,
Oenanthe phellandrium,
Phellandrium aquaticum
Fine-leaved water dropwort, Water fennel, Water dropwort all parts Contains oenanthetoxin, a poison causing convulsions. The entire plant is toxic, especially the roots. Drying reduces its toxicity but does not remove it totally. The known lethal oral dose for rabbits is 20 g of fresh root per kg of body weight.[25]

Symptoms include gastrointestinal and neurological effects such as salivation, diarrhea, weakness, depression, seizures, and comas. The effect vary according the amount ingested. If the animal recovers, there is the possibility of permanent paralysis of the hind quarters.[25]

Oenanthe crocata Devil's parsnip, Hemlock water dropwort all parts Contains oenanthetoxin, a poison causing convulsions. The entire plant is toxic, especially the roots. Drying reduces its toxicity but does not remove it totally. The known lethal oral dose for rabbits is 20 g of fresh root per kg of body weight.[25]

Symptoms include gastrointestinal and neurological effects such as salivation, diarrhea, weakness, depression, seizures, and comas. The effect vary according the amount ingested. If the animal recovers, there is the possibility of permanent paralysis of the hind quarters.[25]

Oenanthe fistulosa Tubular water dropwort all parts Contains oenanthetoxin, a poison causing convulsions. The entire plant is toxic, especially the roots. Drying reduces its toxicity but does not remove it totally. The known lethal oral dose for rabbits is 20 g of fresh root per kg of body weight.[25]

Symptoms include gastrointestinal and neurological effects such as salivation, diarrhea, weakness, depression, seizures, and comas. The effect vary according the amount ingested. If the animal recovers, there is the possibility of permanent paralysis of the hind quarters.[25]

Oenanthe lachenalii Parsley water dropwort all parts Contains oenanthetoxin, a poison causing convulsions. The entire plant is toxic, especially the roots. Drying reduces its toxicity but does not remove it totally. The known lethal oral dose for rabbits is 20 g of fresh root per kg of body weight.[25]

Symptoms include gastrointestinal and neurological effects such as salivation, diarrhea, weakness, depression, seizures, and comas. The effect vary according the amount ingested. If the animal recovers, there is the possibility of permanent paralysis of the hind quarters.[25]

Ornithogalum nutans Drooping Star-of-Bethlehem bulbs
Ornithogalum umbellatum Star of Bethlehem bulb, flowers
Oxytropis sericea Locoweed all parts
Pachypodium spp. Pachypodium all parts
Paeonia spp. Peony flower, seeds
Papaver somniferum Opium poppy juice, legumes highly toxic
Paris quadrifolia Herb paris all parts
Parthenocissus quinquefolia,
Vitis hederacea
Virginia creeper leaves, unripe fruits highly toxic
Perilla frutescens Perilla mint, Shiso, Beefsteak mint, Purple mint, Japanese basil, Wild coleus all parts Contains perilla ketone, which is known to produce pulmonary edema in some animals.[26]
Persea americana Avocado, Avocado pear, Alligator pear all above-ground parts Contains persin, a monoglyceride which can cause heart attacks and severe respiratory problems.[27][28] Mexican avocados are less toxic than Guatemalan varieties, and post-mortem exams show lung congestion.[1]:50

Non-infectious mastitis and agalactia has been observed in lactating rabbits after consumption of bark or leaves, and cardial arrhythmia, submandibular edema, and death have been observed in rabbits after consumption of leaves[29]

Phaseolus coccineus Runner bean, Scarlet runner all parts mildly toxic
Philodendron spp. Filodendron all parts
Physalis spp. Chinese-lantern berries, leaves Highly toxic
Phytolacca americana Pokeweed, Inkberry all parts
Pieris spp. Lily-of-the-valley bush foliage, juice highly toxic
Podocarpus elatum Buddhist pine seeds
Polygonatum multiflorum Solomon's seal all parts May cause gastric problems.
Polygonatum odoratum Angular Solomon's seal berries
Polygonatum verticillatum Whorled Solomon's seal all parts Can irritate the digestive tract badly.
Pulsatilla vulgaris Pasque flwer all parts May cause gastric problems.
Ranunculus sceleratus Celery-leaved buttercup juice Highly toxic
Ranunculus spp. Buttercup all parts
Rhamnus cathartica Common buckthorn bark, unripe fruits Highly toxic
Rheum spp. Rhubarb leaves Contains poisonous amounts of oxalic acid.[13]:109
Ricinus communis Castor bean, Castor oil bush, Castor oil plant, Palma christi seeds, oilcakes The seeds contain a proteinaceous phytotoxin (ricin) located in the albumen fraction. It is this non-liposoluble fraction of ricin which persists in the oilcake (solid residue left after seeds have been pressed free of their oil).[30]

The known lethal oral doses to rabbits are 1 g/kg body weight for seeds, and 2 g/kg body weight for the oilcakes.[30]

Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust bark, leaves, seeds Highly toxic
Rumex acetosa Common Sorrel all parts
Rumex spp. Dock, Sorrel leaves Toxic in high quantities.
Sambucus nigra European elder all parts
Sambucus racemosa Red elderberry all parts
Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot all parts
Senecio longilobus Threadleaf groundsel all parts Contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which affect the liver and nervous system. Toxicity is cumulative and symptoms may not show for months.[31]
Senecio riddellii Riddell’s groundsel all parts Contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which affect the liver and nervous system. Toxicity is cumulative and symptoms may not show for months.[31]
Senecio vulgaris Common groundsel flowers, leaves Contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which affect the liver and nervous system. Toxicity is cumulative and symptoms may not show for months.[32]
Skimmia japonica Japanese skimmia all parts
Solanum capsicastrum False Jerusalem cherry, Winter cherry all parts Symptoms include inflammation of the stomach and intestine with bleeding, weakness, excess drooling, difficulty breathing, trembling, progressive paralysis, laying down, and death.[18]
Solanum carolinense Carolina horsenettle, Horse nettle, Horse-nettle, Radical weed, Sand brier, Sand briar, Bull nettle, Tread-softly, Apple of Sodom, Devil's tomato, Wild tomato all parts Symptoms include inflammation of the stomach and intestine with bleeding, weakness, excess drooling, difficulty breathing, trembling, progressive paralysis, laying down, and death.[18]
Solanum dulcamara Climbing nightshade, Bittersweet, Bittersweet nightshade, Bitter nightshade, Blue bindweed, Amara dulcis, Fellenwort, Felonwood, Poisonberry, Poisonflower, Scarlet berry, Snakeberry, Trailing bittersweet, Trailing nightshade, Violet bloom, Woody nightshade all parts Symptoms include inflammation of the stomach and intestine with bleeding, weakness, excess drooling, difficulty breathing, trembling, progressive paralysis, laying down, and death.[18]
Solanum nigrum Black nightshade, Duscle, Garden nightshade, Garden huckleberry, Hound's berry, Petty morel, Wonder berry, Small-fruited black nightshade, Popolo unripe berries Symptoms include inflammation of the stomach and intestine with bleeding, weakness, excess drooling, difficulty breathing, trembling, progressive paralysis, laying down, and death.[18]
Solanum pseudocapsicum Jerusalem cherry, Madeira winter cherry, Winter cherry all parts Symptoms include inflammation of the stomach and intestine with bleeding, weakness, excess drooling, difficulty breathing, trembling, progressive paralysis, laying down, and death.[18]
Solanum tuberosum Potato unripe fruits, leaves, stems Symptoms include inflammation of the stomach and intestine with bleeding, weakness, excess drooling, difficulty breathing, trembling, progressive paralysis, laying down, and death.[18]
Solanum villosum Red nightshade, Hairy nightshade, Woolly nightshade all parts Symptoms include inflammation of the stomach and intestine with bleeding, weakness, excess drooling, difficulty breathing, trembling, progressive paralysis, laying down, and death.[18]
Spathiphyllum wallisii Peace lily all parts
Strelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise, Strelitzia, Crane flower all parts
Symphoricarpos Snowberry berries
Syngonium spp. Arrowhead
Tagetes spp. Marigold all parts May cause skin irritation
Taxus baccata English yew foliage, berries Contains an alkaloid (taxine) and a heteroside (taxicatoside). Toxicity is maximal in winter and is not reduced by drying. Cut branches that are a few weeks old are more toxic than when fresh. A toxic oral dose in rabbits is 20 g of fresh plant material per kg of body weight.[33]

Poisoning is often violent and sudden in its onset with death in several minutes. Symptoms include shaking, labored breathing, collapse and death.[33]

Acute poisoning which appears within several hours to 1 to 3 days is exhibited by excitation, agitation, shaking, depression, abnormally slow breathing, and death.[33]

Non-specific symptoms of yew poisoning includes stomach distension by gas and the inflammation of the mucus in stomach and intestine.[33]

Trollius europaeus Globeflower all parts
Tulipa gesneriana Tulip bulbs
Veratrum album White false hellebore all parts
Viburnum lantana Wayfaring tree all parts
Viburnum opulus European cranberrybush unripe fruit
Viburnum spp. Viburnum berries mildly toxic
Viscum album Mistletoe all parts
Wisteria spp. Wisteria seeds, legumes
Xanthium spp. Cocklebur seeds and young seedlings Symptoms include loss of appetite, depression, nausea, vomiting, weakness, rapid weak pulse, difficulty breathing, muscle spasms, and convulsions. [18]
Zantedeschia aethiopica Calla Lily all parts Highly toxic

Additional resources

The following are general resources on looking up the toxicity of a plant:

The following are a few toxic plant lists for rabbits, however, they may be overzealous.

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Varga, M. (2013). Textbook of rabbit medicine. (2nd ed.).
  2. ASPCA, Precatory Bean
  3. University of Pennsylvania, ROSARY PEA, PRECATORY BEAN - Abrus precatorius
  4. The Poison Garden website, Abrus precatorius, jequirity bean, rosary pea
  5. Poisonous Plants of the Southern United States
  6. The Poison Garden website, Aconitum lycoctonum, wolfsbane
  7. The Poison Garden website, Aconitum napellus, monkshood
  8. TY Chan, Aconite poisoning
  9. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, Actaea pachypoda Ell.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Mary Fraser, Simon Girling, Rabbit Medicine and Surgery for Veterinary Nurses
  11. 11.0 11.1 Bob Janiskee, National Park Mystery Plant 5 Revealed: It’s the Red Baneberry
  12. Utah State University, Baneberry
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Mcnitt, J.I et al. (2013). Rabbit production. (9th ed.).
  14. Schamber, G., & Misek, A. (1985). Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed): Inability to cause renal toxicosis in rabbits. Am J Vet Res, 46(1):266-7. Retrieved 21 March 2016 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3970436
  15. Lorgue, G., et al. (2002). Amaranthus. Retrieved 21 March 2016 from http://www.provet.co.uk/lorgue/5a671dd.htm
  16. ASPCA. (n.d.). Poinciana. Retrieved 19 April 2016 from http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/animal-poison-control/toxic-and-non-toxic-plants/poinciana
  17. 17.0 17.1 ASPCA. (n.d.). Bird of Paradise. Retrieved 19 April 2016 from http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/animal-poison-control/toxic-and-non-toxic-plants/bird-paradise
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 The Merck Manual Pet Health Edition. (2011). Plants Poisonous to Animals. Retrieved 26 April 2016 from http://www.merckvetmanual.com/pethealth/special_subjects/poisoning/plants_poisonous_to_animals.html
  19. Government of Canada, Notes on poisoning: Chrysanthemum indicum
  20. Wildpro, Permethrin and Pyrethrin Toxicity in Rabbits
  21. Ting Yang et. al, Pyrethrins Protect Pyrethrum Leaves Against Attack by Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 Lorgue, G., et al. (2002). Laburnum. Retrieved 22 March 2016 fromhttp://www.provet.co.uk/lorgue/5a7b0a3.htm
  23. Australian Weeds and Livestock. (n.d.). Cytisus scoparius. Retrieved 22 March 2016 from http://www.weeds.mangrovemountain.net/data/Cytisus%20scoparius%20-%20Broom.pdf
  24. University of Nebraska - Lincoln, J. J. Zhu, X.-P. Zeng, D. Berkebile, H.-J. Du, Y. Tong, and K. Qian, Efficacy and safety of catnip (Nepeta cataria) as a novel filth fly repellent
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 Lorgue, G., et al. (2002). Hemlock Water Dropwort. Retrieved 22 March 2016 from http://www.provet.co.uk/lorgue/5a7a3bc.htm
  26. Extension Master Gardeners of Mecklenburg County, Perilla, P. Frutescens: An Interesting And Valuable Addition To The Garden
  27. The Merck Veterinary Manual. (2013). Avocado. Retrieved 26 April 2016 from http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/toxicology/food_hazards/avocado.html
  28. Moore, L. (2013). Rabbit nutrition and nutritional healing. (2nd ed.).
  29. Kovalkovičová, N., Šutiaková, I., Pistl, J., & Šutiak, V. (2009). Some food toxic for pets. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2(3). doi:10.2478/v10102-009-0012-4
  30. 30.0 30.1 Lorgue, G., et al. (2002). Ricin. Retrieved 22 March 2016 from http://www.provet.co.uk/lorgue/5a935fd.htm
  31. 31.0 31.1 New Mexico State University, Keith W. Duncan Groundsels and Livestock Poisoning
  32. S. Aldrich-Markham, Common Groundsel
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 Lorgue, G., et al. (2002). Yew. Retrieved 21 March 2016 from http://www.provet.co.uk/lorgue/5a92fa3.htm